I-EU Green Deal FCMs

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I-EU Green Deal idinga ukuxazululwa kwezinkinga ezibalulekile ezihlonzwe ekuhlolweni kwamanje kwezinto zokuxhumana zokudla (ama-FCM), futhi ukubonisana nomphakathi ngalokhu kuzophela ngomhla ka-11 Januwari 2023, ngesinqumo sekomiti ngekota yesibili ka-2023. Lezi izinkinga ezinkulu zihlobene nokungabikho komthetho we-EU FCM kanye nemithetho yamanje ye-EU.

Imininingwane imi kanje:01 Ukungasebenzi kahle kwemakethe yangaphakathi kanye nezindaba zokuphepha ezingaba khona kuma-FCM angewona awepulasitiki Izimboni eziningi ngaphandle kwepulasitiki azinayo imithetho ethile ye-EU, okuholela ekuntulekeni kwezinga elichaziwe lokuphepha ngakho-ke asikho isisekelo esisemthethweni esisemthethweni imboni ukusebenza ngokuhambisana.Nakuba imithetho ethile ikhona yezinsizakusebenza ezithile ezingeni likazwelonke, lezi zivame ukuhluka kakhulu emazweni angamalungu noma seziphelelwe yisikhathi, zidala ukuvikelwa kwezempilo okungalingani kwezakhamuzi ze-EU kanye namabhizinisi athwala kanzima ngokungadingekile, njengesistimu yokuhlola eminingi.Kwamanye amazwe angamalungu, ayikho imithetho kazwelonke ngoba azikho izinsizakusebenza ezanele zokuzenzela.Ngokusho kwababambe iqhaza, lezi zinkinga zibuye zidale izinkinga ekusebenzeni kwemakethe ye-EU.Isibonelo, ama-FCM ama-euro ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-100 ngonyaka, lapho cishe izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu zibandakanya ukukhiqizwa nokusetshenziswa kwezinto ezingezona ezepulasitiki, okuhlanganisa amabhizinisi amaningi amancane naphakathi nendawo.02 Indlela Enhle Yohlu Lokugunyazwa Ukushoda kokugxilisa ingqondo emkhiqizweni wokugcina Ukuhlinzekwa Kohlu Lwemvume Oluhle lwezinto zokuqala ze-FCM zepulasitiki kanye nezimfuneko zesithako kuholela emithethweni yezobuchwepheshe eyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu, izinkinga ezingokoqobo zokusebenzisa nokuphatha, kanye nomthwalo oweqile kuziphathimandla zikahulumeni nezimboni. .Ukwakhiwa kohlu kwakha isithiyo esibalulekile sokuvumelanisa imithetho yezinye izinto ezinjengamayinki, amarabha nama-adhesive.Ngaphansi kwamakhono amanje okuhlola ubungozi kanye neziyalezo ezilandelayo ze-EU, kuzothatha cishe iminyaka engu-500 ukuhlola zonke izinto ezisetshenziswa kuma-FCM angavumelanisiwe.Ukwenyuka kolwazi lwesayensi nokuqonda kwama-FCM kuphinde kuphakamise ukuthi ukuhlola okukhawulelwe ezintweni zokuqala akubhekiseli ngokwanele ukuphepha kwemikhiqizo yokugcina, okuhlanganisa ukungcola nezinto ezivele zakheke ngengozi ngesikhathi sokukhiqiza.Kukhona futhi ukuntula ukucabangela ukusetshenziswa okungase kube khona nokuhlala isikhathi eside komkhiqizo wokugcina kanye nemiphumela yokuguga kwezinto ezibonakalayo.03 Ukushoda kwezinto ezibalulekile kanye nokuhlolwa kwakamuva kwezinto eziyingozi kakhulu Uhlaka lwamanje lwe-FCM alunayo indlela yokucabangela ngokushesha ulwazi olusha lwesayensi, isibonelo, idatha efanele engase itholakale ngaphansi komthethonqubo we-EU REACH.Kuphinde kube nokushoda kokungaguquguquki emsebenzini wokuhlola ubungozi wezigaba zento efanayo noma ezifanayo ezihlolwe amanye ama-ejensi, njenge-European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), ngaleyo ndlela isidingo sokuthuthukisa indlela “yento eyodwa, ukuhlola okukodwa”.Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokusho kwe-EFSA, ukuhlola ubungozi nakho kudinga ukucolisiswa ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuvikelwa kwamaqembu asengozini, okusekela izenzo ezihlongozwayo Kusu Lamakhemikhali.04 Ukushintshisana okunganele kolwazi lokuphepha kanye nokuhambisana ku-supply chain, ikhono lokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukuthobelana kusengozini.Ngokungeziwe ekuthathweni kwesampula ngokomzimba nokuhlaziya, imibhalo yokuthobela ibalulekile ekunqumeni ukuphepha kwezinto ezibonakalayo, futhi ichaza ngemizamo yomkhakha yokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwama-FCM.Umsebenzi wokuphepha.Lokhu kushintshaniswa kolwazi ochungechungeni lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla nakho akwanele futhi akusobala ngokwanele ukuze wonke amabhizinisi kulo lonke uchungechunge lokuhlinzeka aqinisekise ukuthi umkhiqizo wokugcina uphephile kubathengi, nokwenza amazwe angamalungu akwazi ukuhlola lokhu ngohlelo lwamanje olusekelwe ephepheni.Ngakho-ke, izinhlelo zesimanje, ezenziwe lula futhi ezenziwe ngedijithali kakhudlwana ezihambisana nobuchwepheshe obuthuthukayo kanye namazinga e-IT azosiza ukuthuthukisa ukuziphendulela, ukuhamba kolwazi kanye nokuhambisana.05 Ukuphoqelelwa kwemithetho ye-FCM kuvamise ukuba mpofu Amazwe Angamalungu e-EU awanazo izinsiza ezanele noma ubuchwepheshe obanele bokuphoqelela imithetho yamanje uma kuza ekusebenziseni imithetho ye-FCM.Ukuhlolwa kwemibhalo yokuthobela imithetho kudinga ulwazi olukhethekile, futhi ukungalandeli okutholakala kulesi sisekelo kunzima ukukuvikela enkantolo.Njengomphumela, ukusetshenziswa kwamanje kuncike kakhulu kuzilawuli zokuhlaziya phezu kwemikhawulo yokufuduka.Nokho, ezintweni ezingaba ngu-400 ezinemingcele yokufuduka, zingaba ngu-20 kuphela ezitholakala ngezindlela eziqinisekisiwe.06 Imithethonqubo ayikunaki ngokugcwele ukubaluleka kwama-SME Uhlelo lwamanje luyinkinga ikakhulukazi kuma-SME.Ngakolunye uhlangothi, imithetho enemininingwane yezobuchwepheshe ehlobene nebhizinisi inzima kakhulu ukuba bayiqonde.Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuntuleka kwemithetho ethile kusho ukuthi abanaso isisekelo sokuqinisekisa ukuthi izinto ezingezona ezepulasitiki ziyahambisana nemithethonqubo, noma azinazo izinsiza zokubhekana nemithetho eminingi emazweni angamalungu, ngaleyo ndlela zikhawulela izinga imikhiqizo yazo engakwazi ngayo. zingamakethwa kulo lonke elase-EU.Ukwengeza, ama-SME ngokuvamile awanazo izinsiza zokufaka isicelo sokuthi izinto zihlolwe ukuze zigunyazwe ngakho-ke kufanele athembele ezicelweni ezisungulwe abadlali bezimboni ezinkulu.07 Umthethonqubo awukukhuthazi ukuthuthukiswa kwezinye izindlela eziphephile nezimeme kakhudlwana Umthetho wamanje wokuphatha ukuphepha kokudla unikeza isisekelo esincane noma asikho nhlobo sokwenza imithetho esekela futhi ekhuthaze ezinye izindlela zokupakisha ezisimeme noma eziqinisekisa ukuphepha kwalezi zindlela ezihlukile.Izinto eziningi zefa nezinto zigunyazwa ngokusekelwe ekuhloleni ubungozi obungaqinile, kuyilapho izinto ezintsha nezinto zingaphansi kokuhlolwa okwengeziwe.08 Ububanzi bokulawula abuchazwanga ngokucacile futhi budinga ukubhekwa kabusha.Nakuba imithetho yamanje ka-1935/2004 ibeka isihloko, ngokusho kokubonisana nomphakathi okwenziwe ngesikhathi sokuhlola, cishe ingxenye yabaphenduli abaphawule ngalolu daba yathi Kunzima kakhulu ukuwela ngaphakathi kobubanzi bomthetho wamanje we-FCM. .Isibonelo, izindwangu zamatafula zepulasitiki zidinga isimemezelo sokuthobela umthetho.

Umgomo usuwonke wohlelo olusha uwukwenza uhlelo oluphelele, olufakazela ikusasa nolusebenzisekayo lwe-FCM ezingeni le-EU oluqinisekisa ngokwanele ukuphepha kokudla nempilo yomphakathi, oluqinisekisa ukusebenza kahle kwemakethe yangaphakathi, futhi lukhuthaze ukusimama.Umgomo wayo uwukwenza imithetho elinganayo yawo wonke amabhizinisi nokusekela ikhono lawo lokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwezinto zokugcina nezinto.Lolu hlelo olusha lufeza ukuzibophezela Kwesu Lamakhemikhali lokuvimbela ukuba khona kwamakhemikhali ayingozi kakhulu futhi kuqinise izinyathelo ezicabangela inhlanganisela yamakhemikhali.Uma kubhekwa izinjongo ze-Circular Economy Action Plan (CEAP), isekela ukusetshenziswa kwezisombululo zokupakisha ezisimeme, ikhuthaza ukusungulwa kwezinto ezintsha eziphephile, ezinobungani kwemvelo, ezisebenziseka kabusha nezigaywa kabusha, futhi isiza ekunciphiseni ukulahlwa kokudla.Lolu hlelo luzophinde lunike amandla amazwe angamalungu e-EU ukuthi asebenzise ngempumelelo imithetho ewumphumela.Imithetho izophinda isebenze kuma-FCM angenisiwe evela emazweni esithathu futhi abekwe emakethe ye-EU.

isizinda Ubuqotho nokuphepha kochungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla yokuxhumana nokudla (ama-FCMs) kubalulekile, kodwa amanye amakhemikhali angasuka kuma-FCM aye ekudleni, okuholela ekuchayekeni kwabathengi kulezi zinto.Ngakho-ke, ukuze kuvikelwe abathengi, i-European Union (EC) No 1935/2004 isungula imithetho eyisisekelo ye-EU yawo wonke ama-FCM, inhloso yawo okuwukuqinisekisa izinga eliphezulu lokuvikelwa kwempilo yabantu, ukuvikela izintshisekelo zabathengi kanye nokuqinisekisa ukusebenza kahle. ukusebenza kwemakethe yangaphakathi.Lo mthetho udinga ukukhiqizwa kwama-FCM ukuze amakhemikhali angadluliselwe emikhiqizweni yokudla ebeka impilo yomuntu engozini, futhi ubeka eminye imithetho, njengaleyo yokulebula nokulandeleka.Iphinde ivumele ukwethulwa kwemithetho ethile yezinto ezithile futhi isungula inqubo yokuhlolwa kwengozi yezinto yi-European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) kanye nokugunyazwa ekugcineni yiKhomishini.Lokhu kusetshenziswe kuma-FCM epulasitiki lapho izidingo zesithako nohlu lwezinto ezigunyaziwe zisungulwe, kanye nemikhawulo ethile efana nemikhawulo yokufuduka.Kwezinye izinto eziningi, njengephepha namakhadibhodi, izinto zensimbi nezingilazi, izinto zokunamathisela, ezinengilazi, ama-silicone nenjoloba, ayikho imithetho ethile emazingeni e-EU, imithetho ethile kazwelonke kuphela.Izinhlinzeko eziyisisekelo zomthetho wamanje we-EU zahlongozwa ngo-1976 kodwa zisanda kuhlolwa.Umuzwa wokusetshenziswa komthetho, impendulo evela kubabambe iqhaza, kanye nobufakazi obuqoqwe ngokuhlolwa okuqhubekayo komthetho we-FCM buphakamisa ukuthi ezinye zezinkinga zihlobene nokuntuleka kwemithetho ethile ye-EU, okuholele ekungaqinisekini mayelana nokuphepha kwamanye ama-FCM kanye nokukhathazeka kwangaphakathi kwezimakethe. .Eminye imithetho ethile ye-EU isekelwa yibo bonke ababambiqhaza okuhlanganisa Amazwe Angamalungu e-EU, iPhalamende LaseYurophu, izimboni nama-NGO.


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Oct-28-2022

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